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Swine Disease Global SurveillanceReport, Mar. 2023 –Part 2
African Swine Fever
New African swine fever outbreaks in domestic pigs were reported in nine countries (Bhutan, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, The Philippines, Republic of Korea, and Vietnam) between February 4 and March 6, 2023. During this period, Singapore reported its first ASF in wild boars.
东南亚 South EastAsia
● 新加坡| 2月7日：新加坡成为亚洲第17个受非洲猪瘟影响的国家。新加坡国家公园委员会(NParks)证实，在新加坡西北部发现的一头野猪尸体是首例非洲猪瘟病例。野猪原产于新加坡，可以在自然保护区、公园，甚至在一些城市地区找到。国家公园正在通过生物监测系统密切监测这些地区野猪的健康状况。据该机构称，新加坡没有养猪场。
Singapore | February 7: the city-state became the 17th nation in Asia to be affected by African swine fever. The National Parks Board (NParks) confirmed the first ASF case in a wild boar carcass found in northwestern Singapore. Wild boars are native to Singapore and can be found in nature reserves, parks, and even in some urban areas. NParks are closely monitoring the health of wild boars in these areas through a bio-surveillance system in place. According to the agency, there are no pig farms in Singapore.
● 菲律宾| 2月8日：伊洛伊洛又报告3起非洲猪瘟，导致52头猪被屠宰。目前，伊洛伊洛共有21个镇出现非洲猪瘟病例，其中16个镇被划分为红色区，5个镇被划分为粉红色区。与此同时，非洲猪瘟蔓延到卡皮兹省。因此，根据区域动物疾病和诊断实验室(RADDL)进行的检测，2月23日，来自马扬市Canapian巴朗圭一个后院农场的所有18个样本均呈阳性。地方当局对病毒在班乃岛缓慢蔓延表示关切，认为有必要在民众中开展宣传活动，以防止病毒蔓延。随着卡皮兹被列入非洲猪瘟感染区，班乃岛只有古迪和阿克兰仍然没有非洲猪瘟。除伊洛伊洛和卡皮兹外，吉马拉斯的两个市也有非洲猪瘟记录。
The Philippines | February 8: three more Iloilo towns report ASF, resulting intheslaughter of 52 pigs. Currently, a total of 21 towns in Iloilo have ASF cases, of which 16 towns are classified as red zones and five towns are categorized as pink zones. Meanwhile, ASF reaches Capiz province. Thus, on February 23, all 18 samples from a backyard farm in Barangay Canapian in the municipality of Maayon were positive as per the test conducted by the Regional Animal Diseases and Diagnostic Laboratory (RADDL). Local authorities express concern about the slow spread of the virus in Panay Island and consider it necessary to conduct outreach among the population to prevent the spread of the virus. With the inclusion of Capiz as among the ASF-infected areas, only Antique and Aklan in Panay island remain ASF-free. Aside from Iloilo and Capiz, ASF has been recorded in two municipalities in Guimaras.
Indonesia | February 8: in East Nusa Tenggara, 31 more pigs suddenly died,raisingconcerns about the spread of ASF in the region. Since December last year, the number of pigs that died in the province has risen to 349. According to the Animal Husbandry Service official, most pig deaths were suspected to be caused by ASF. Since December 2022, the ASF virus has spread to Kupang Regency, Kupang City, Ende Regency, East Flores Regency, Sikka Regency, Southwest Sumba Regency, West Sumba Regency, and North Central Timor Regency.
● 马来西亚| 2月14日：槟城又有三家商品猪场报告爆发非洲猪瘟，使受感染的猪场总数达到30家，猪总数达到68,659头。在这三个猪场中，一个被感染的猪场位于西伯朗州，另外两个在西伯朗州北部地区。1月13日，槟城宣布该州爆发非洲猪瘟是一场“灾难”，此前两个地区的11个商品猪场报告了病例，涉及2.5万头猪。为控制及防止非洲猪瘟蔓延，本署现正实施全面扑杀政策，扑杀位于疫区的受感染或疑似猪场的猪只。自1月5日发现首例非洲猪瘟病例以来，对感染猪进行了扑杀，截至2月14日，来自14个受影响农场的14,385头猪已被屠宰。
Malaysia | February 14: three more commercial pig farms in Penang reportASFoutbreaks, bringing the total number of farms infected to 30 with a total populationof68,659 pigs. Of the three, one pig farm infected was in the Seberang Prai Selatan (SPS), and two others were in the Seberang Prai Utara (SPU) district. On Jan 13, Penang declared the ASF outbreak in the state a “disaster” after cases were reported in 11 commercial pig farms in two districts, involving 25,000 pigs. To control and prevent the spread of ASF, the department is implementing the stamping-out policy through the culling of pigs in infected or suspect farms in the infection zone. The culling of infected pigs had been carried out since Jan 5 after the first case of ASF was detected, and, as of February 14, a total of 14,385 pigs from 14 affected farms have been slaughtered.
Based on the 2022 census, there are a total of 124 pig farms in four districts in Penang, with a total population of 267,348 pigs. The supply of pork in Penang remains sufficient, with 94 commercial pig farms free from ASF with a population of 198,586 pigs.
Map 4. African swine fever outbreaks distribution in domestic pigs in Asia: February 1, 2023 – March 7, 2023
(Source: FAO EMPRES-i)
● 尼泊尔| 2月27日：由于非洲猪瘟，尼泊尔中南部巴拉特普尔地区超过2,800头猪死亡。根据兽医医院和牲畜服务中心专家的说法，这种疾病造成了超过6,200万卢比(75万美元)的损失，蔓延到四个地方，并扑杀了总共12个猪场的至少2,873头猪。据悉，非洲猪瘟于8个月前在2022年5月16日被确诊。
Nepal | February 27: over 2,800 pigs have died in Bharatpur district, southerncentralNepal, due to ASF. According to the Veterinary Hospital and Livestock Services Expert Centre, the disease incurred a loss of over Rs 62 million ($750,000), spreading to four local levels and killing at least 2,873 pigs kept in the total 12 pig farms (three in Bharatpur metropolis-3, four in Ratnanagar, three in Ichhakamana and two in Khairahani). Having been detected eight months ago, the disease was reportedly confirmed on May 16, 2022.
● 柬埔寨| 2月17日：消费者保护、竞争和欺诈抑制总局(CCF)和动物卫生和生产总局销毁了1,760公斤非法进口的猪肉和冷冻猪内脏，这些猪肉被发现感染了非洲猪瘟。这些肉是在金边被查获的。廉署发现数间存放及售卖不符合标准的鲜肉及冻肉产品的处所，而这些产品的来源并不清楚。
Cambodia | February 17: Consumer Protection, Competition, and FraudRepressionDirectorate-General (CCF) and the General Department of Animal Health andProductiondestroyed 1,760kg of illegally imported pork and frozen pig organs, whichwasdiscovered to be ASF-infected. The meat was seized in Phnom Penh. CCF discovered several premises which were storing and selling non-compliant fresh and frozen meat products, which had no clear sources.
Taiwan | February 10: following ASF detection, Taiwan raises fines on porkproductsfrom Singapore. Barbecued meat, sausages, ham, pork-based instant noodles, canned food, pork floss egg rolls, and bak kut teh soup packs are on the list of prohibited items. Those who import, bring in, or ship-in pork products from Singapore will be fined $8,800 for the first offense, and repeat offenders will be fined $32,797. Previously, when Taiwan named all Southeast Asian countries, including Singapore, as high-risk areas for ASF in 2019, the fine was $332.
● 中国香港| 2月11日：在靠近中国大陆边境的上水一家农场，32头猪被检测出非洲猪瘟，45头猪死亡。结果，该农场共宰杀了100头猪。对该猪场3公里范围内的5个猪场进行了检查，未发现异常情况，也未收到3公里范围外猪场的异常情况报告。渔农自然护理署表示，由于已实施生物保安措施，如“每日清关”(所有运往屠房的活猪须在24小时内屠宰，屠房不同地点的猪圈须每日清空)，感染个案不会影响本地猪肉供应或屠房的运作，进行彻底清洁和消毒)，以及对中国内地的活猪运输车辆和本地屠宰场进行清洁和消毒。为保障本地养猪场的生物安全及防止病原体在养猪场间传播，渔护署已采取一系列措施减低疾病传播的风险，包括限制本地养猪场运输车辆每次运往屠房时，只能从一个持牌养猪场运送活猪；以及订立标准，避免本地养猪场运输车辆洒出猪废物，以减少猪废物的洒出。
Hong Kong | February 11: ASF was detected in 32 pigs, and 45 pigs died at a localfarminSheungShuineartheborderwithChina.As a result, a total of 100 pigs on the farm were slaughtered. Five pig farms within 3 kilometers of the farm were inspected, and no abnormalities were found, as well as no reports of abnormalities from pig farms outside the 3 km zone have been received. According to the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, the infections would not affect local pork supply or operations at local slaughterhouses due to implemented biosecurity measures, such as “Daily Clearing” (all live pigs transported to the slaughterhouses have to be slaughtered within 24 hours and pig pens in different locations of the slaughterhouses have to be emptied every day, thoroughly cleaned and disinfected) and enforcement of cleaning and disinfection of live pig transport vehicles in China and local slaughterhouses. To safeguard the biosecurity of local pig farms and to prevent the spreading of pathogens amongst farms, the AFCD has carried out a series of measures to reduce the risk of disease transmission, including restricting local pig transportation vehicles to carry live pigs from only one licensed pig farm during each trip to the slaughterhouse and setting up standards to avoid spillage from local pig transportation vehicles to minimize spillage of pig wastes.
● 韩国| 2月12日：在首尔以东174公里的江原道东部地区，当地一家农场报告了新的疫情。动物卫生部门在23头猪死亡后对1,950头猪进行了检测。今年是继抱川(1月5日)、铁原(1月11日)、金浦(1月22日)之后第四次发生非洲猪瘟疫情。
South Korea | February 12: a new outbreak was reported on a local farm in theeasternregion of Gangwon Province, 174 kilometers east of Seoul. Animal health authorities conducted testing on a farm of 1,950 pigs after 23 pigs had died. This year it is the fourth outbreak, following ones in Pocheon (January 5), Cheorwon (January 11), and Gimpo (January 22).
口蹄疫 Foot-and-mouth disease
There are reports of continued FMD outbreaks in the Middle East. FMD cases have been reported in multiple susceptible species of domestic ruminants in the West Bank and Iraq. These outbreaks have been confirmed to be caused by FMD virus serotypes SAT2 and O.
西岸地区|2023年2月，向世界卫生组织报告了伯利恒和辛达扎农场发生的两起新的口蹄疫疫情。伯利恒的疫情于2023年2 月26 日在一个山羊农场首次被发现。观察到8 例病例，报告了8例死亡。作为控制措施，对七只高危山羊进行了疫苗接种。辛达扎的疫情始于2023年2 月26日，当时在新生羊羔死亡时，根据实验室诊断，尸检发现了“虎心”。在这个受影响的农场，报告了20 例死亡和30例病例，均为绵羊。引起这些疫情的口蹄疫病毒的详细分子特征表明，它属于口蹄疫血清型O, ME-SA/PanAsia-2 ANT- 10谱系。
West Bank | February 2023,Two new FMD outbreaks occurring in farms in Bethlehem and Hindaza, were reported to WOAH. The outbreak in Bethlehem was first detected on February 26, 2023, on a goat farm. Eight cases were observed, and eight deaths were reported. As a measure of control, seven at- risk goats were vaccinated. The outbreak in Hindaza started on February 26, 2023, when at the death of newborn lambs, “tiger heart” was discovered at necropsy according to laboratory diagnosis. In this affected farm, 20 deaths and 30 cases were reported, all in sheep. Detailed molecular characterization of the FMD virus causing these outbreaks shows it belongs to FMD Serotype O, ME-SA/PanAsia-2 ANT- 10 lineage.
伊拉克|2023年2 月26 日在混合敏感物种(家养水牛、牛、绵羊、山羊)中报告了9 起新的疫情，使口蹄疫病例总数达到27,910例，自2023年1 月3 日观察到首例病例并确认由口蹄疫SAT2引起以来，死亡231例。这些最新疫情报告发生在摩西尔、卡尔巴拉、达亚拉、阿尔德瓦尼亚、阿尔巴什拉、巴格达、巴比伦、阿尔纳杰夫和阿拉马迪等地。地方当局正在努力控制全国各地正在爆发的23起疫情。由于获得疫苗的延迟，这一问题变得尤为复杂。
Iraq|February26,2023.Nine new outbreaks have been reported in mixed susceptible species (domestic buffaloes, cattle, sheep, goats), bringing the total number of FMD cases to 27,910 and 231 deaths since the first case was observed on January 03, 2023, and confirmed to be caused by FMD SAT2. These latest outbreaks were reported in the localities of Mosil, Karbala, Dayala, Aldewania, Albashrah, Baghdad, Babil, Alnajaf, and Alramadi. Local authorities are working to control 23 ongoing outbreaks throughout the country. This has particularly been made more complicated by a delay in acquiring vaccines.
尼帕病毒 Nipah Virus
从2023年1 月4 日至2 月13日，孟加拉国的尼帕病毒感染出现了令人担忧的增加，在两个分区的7 个区发现了11 例(10例确诊病例和1 例疑似病例)。根据世界卫生组织(WHO)的数据，已有8 人死于这种疾病。
From January 4 to February 13, 2023, Bangladesh experienced a concerning increase in Nipah virus infection, with 11 cases (10 confirmed and one probable) detected in seven districts spanning two divisions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), eight people died as a result of this illness.
这是自2015年以来最大规模的疫情，2015年报告了15 例病例，其中11 人死亡。在当前尼帕疫情中，有10 例病例可能得到实验室确认，而由于缺乏可用样本，有1 例被列为疑似病例。
This is the largest outbreak since 2015, when 15 cases were reported, with 11 deaths. Laboratory confirmation was possible for 10 of the cases in the current Nipah outbreak, while one was classified as probable due to a lack of available samples.
Nipah virus is a zoonotic virus that was first discovered in Malaysia and Singapore in 1999 and has since spread to other countries, including Bangladesh. The first Nipah virus outbreak in Bangladesh occurred in 2001, and there have been several other outbreaks since then. In Bangladesh, the virus is primarily associated with fruit bats of the Pteropus genus, which are thought to be the virus’s natural reservoir. Human-to-human transmission of the virus has also been reported, particularly among infected people’s close contacts.
While the virus is most commonly associated with fruit bats and human-to-human transmission, pigs have been infected with the virus as well. Pigs can get the Nipah virus from infected bats or consuming contaminated feed or water. Pigs were found to play a key role in spreading the virus to humans during the outbreaks in Malaysia. Infected pigs can shed the virus through their saliva, urine, and feces, and the virus can survive for several days in the environment. This facilitated the virus’s spread from pigs to humans, resulting in a high number of human cases.
Efforts have been made to prevent the spread of the Nipah virus in pigs since the outbreaks in Malaysia. Measures such as pig farm surveillance, culling infected pigs, and movement restrictions have been implemented in the past. Additionally, the development of pig vaccines has been investigated as a potential control measure. While pigs can be infected with the Nipah virus, they are not considered a natural host for the virus, and the risk of transmission from pigs to humans is low when compared to transmission from bats to humans. However, steps must be taken to prevent the virus from spreading in pig populations in order to reduce the risk of human cases.